Occupations - All
Occupations - Male
Occupations - Female
Occupations of Females in Beeston, Nottinghamshire, April 1881
|Industry Group||Occupation Group||Females Analysed by Age|
|All Ages||Under 6||6-10||11-15||16-20||21-30||31-50||51-70||>70|
|Manufacture||Mfr/W-sale - Food/drink||2||0||0||0||1||0||0||0||1|
|Mfr/W-sale - Other||8||0||0||1||3||4||0||0||0|
|Labour - General||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Trade||Retail - food/drink||14||0||0||0||5||0||4||4||1|
|Retail - other||14||0||0||1||1||5||6||1||0|
The above table sets out our analysis of the female population of Beeston in April 1881, by industry/occupation and by age band. A similar table for the male
population can be seen by clicking here. Each of these tables have been prepared based on the principles
described in connection with the overall population table which can be seen here.
The table can be used to observe and quantify certain characteristics and trends within the population and, in particular, within the working population:
The employment rate amongst the over-15 female population is just over 43%, a further reduction from 48% in 1871, just over 50% in 1861 and almost 58% in 1851. This significant movement appears to arise largely
from a corresponding trend in both the number and proportion of married women in the population. Again, there is an increase in the number of wives, to 753 (from 577 in 1871, 542 in 1861, 462 in 1851), although the
proportion of women over 15 who are married is slightly down, at 51.1%. (it had been 54% in 1861 and 1871 but only 47% in 1851).
Click to view our analysis of the Male Population by Age and Occupational Groupings
The average age of all female workers remains steady at 29.5 years, essentially the same as in 1871 when it was 29.4 years - from 29.0 in 1861 and 28.3 in 1851; however, this apparent relative stability masks
significant movement in various occupational and other sectors:
A marked increase in female employment in the textile sector and a significant drop in the average age of its female workforce are evident. Since 1871 the numbers of women and girls employed
in this sector have risen from 290 to 374 (29.0%). The numbers in this sector now represent 50.0% of all working females, up from 45.4% in 1871. As is usual, this overall picture masks differences in the detail:
The average age of a female lace industry worker is now 30.3 years, reversing the blip in 1871 when it was 36.0 to return to levels seen earlier - 30.3 in 1861 and 27.2 in 1851.
The number employed increased significantly to 144, nearly twice the 73 employed 10 years earlier and higher than it had been in 30 years and probably ever.
The number of female domestic servants, at 218, remained similar to 1871 when it was 212 and represents 29.2% of all female workers compared with 33.2% in 1871, reflecting a greater variety of
employment opportunities available to girls leaving school.
The average age of a female hosiery worker is down dramatically at 25.9 years - from 46.7 in 1871, 45.9 in 1861 and 43.6 in 1851. The number of females employed is up from 25 to 36 (+44.0%) with, it
seems, the older frame workers beginning to be replaced by younger workers, probably (but not conclusively shown by the data) using newer knitting techniques.
The average age of a female silk worker is 24.1 years, part of a consistent upward trend (it was 21.4 in 1871, 20.5 in 1861 and 18.4 in 1851).
However, the number of females employed at the mill was again down dramatically - by 33.7% since 1861; now only 112, it represents
only 15.0% of the female workforce (compared with 26.5% in 1861 and 35.1% in 1851). This appears to be because of the virtual elimination of the use of child labour at the silk mill now that full time education was almost
universally embraced and changes in legislation had their effect. The employment of child labour, which had been a feature at the mill in earlier years, has now essentially gone.
In the younger age groups, it appears that almost girls of school age were now receiving education:
Now 48.4% of all girls under 16 are recorded as receiving education, essentially similar to the 50% in 1871 and again significantly up from 36% in 1861 and 26% in 1851. A total of 157 girls in education
in 1851 had grown to 236 in 1861, 315 in 1871 and is now 422 - an increase of 34.0% since 1871 and 169% since 1851. The problems of a rapidly increasing population are clearly a problem facing the School
Board, appointed only recently, in December 1880.
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© David Hallam - 2012